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Check the residual before each feeding or every 4 to 8 hours during a continuous feeding. The client's expected outcome is:. A client has been on a clear liquid diet for 5 days. What is an appropriate nursing diagnosis for this client? You are the nurse caring for a client with an enlarged thyroid gland. You anticipate which nutritional deficiency is linked to the client's condition? A client has just had abdominal surgery, and the nurse is consulting with him about his diet now that he is allowed to eat.
Which nutrient is most important for wound healing?It is used to describe a whole range of diets, practiced with differing degrees of restrictio9n. Then more widely accepted classifications are listed below. Some people also exclude poultry. Lacto-ovo-vegetarian: this term refers to individuals who consume dairy produce and eggs but who exclude all meat, fish and poultry.
This is the most common type of vegetarian diet adopted in modern society. Lacto-vegetarian: this term refers to individuals who adopt similar eating patterns to lacto-ovo-vegetarians however, lacto-vegetarians do not consume eggs.
Fruitarian: is an extreme form of veganism which excludes all food of animal origin but also excludes pulses and cereals. The above classification system has developed over the years to help reflect the differing degrees of adoption of vegetarianism It is lacto-vegetarianism, which is discussed here.
Vegetarianism has been practised throughout history for a variety of religious, cultural, philosophical, social and economic reasons. Similarly, for centuries, people have expressed concerns about animal welfare, environmental, ethical and proposed health benefits associated with the consumption of animals and animal-based products.
Consequently, many individuals over the years have chosen to either exclude or reduce their consumption of animal meats and associated products. Many followers of religions faiths have similarly adopted differing degrees of vegetarian-type eating patterns including Buddhism, Jainism and Hindus.Ralink rt3070l monitor mode
Vegetarian eating patterns are not a recent phenomenon, but rather date back over hundreds of years. Interestingly, famous vegetarians include, Plato, Socrates, Pythagoras plus writers Pope and Shelley. The following of the vegetarian movement over the years has lead to the creation of many different societies.
The majority of these societies aim to provide forums for people to increase their knowledge and make informed choice in terms of commencing or maintaining vegetarian eating patterns. In the earlier stages of the vegetarian movement there was a scarcity of evidence and knowledge to help support people making the decision to adopt vegetarian eating patterns.
Over the years, however, a wealth of evidence-based research has provided the public with information about how to go about ensuring that dietary intake is balanced despite the exclusion of animal products.
Research has also suggested health benefits associated with vegetarianism. A varied lacto-vegetarian diet aims to provide all of the essential nutrients that the body requires in suitable amounts to help ensure nutritional adequacy and minimise the risk of deficiencies of nutrients. As with any pattern of eating, it is difficult to make generalisations about the pros and cons of vegetarianism as the diet adopted by each individual will vary considerably depending on the reasons for adopting vegetarianism and consequently the restrictions practised.
Whether or not a vegetarian diet is nutritionally balanced is dependent on the range and amounts of foods selected. The general dietary recommendations are that the general healthy eating guidelines as applied to the general meat-eating population also apply to vegetarians. As with all diets, care needs to be taken to ensure that foods are selected with a view to ensuring a nutritionally balanced mix. Consequently, for lacto-vege-tarians the principles of healthy eating as illustrated by the food pyramid can be adapted to reflect the dietary needs of this cohort of individuals.
Ensuring that substitute foods of similar nutritional value are introduced helps achieve an adequate dietary intake. The principles of healthy diet suggest:. Eating regular meals and snacks if required throughout the day based on starchy carbohydrates bread, potatoes, pasta, rice, cereals at each mealtime.Determine healthy body weight for age and height.
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Early diagnosis and a holistic team treatment of eating disorders are desirable. In the developed world, protein-calorie malnutrition PCM most often accompanies a disease process.
Over the short term, patients involuntarily committed for treatment of eating disorders progressed as well as those seeking treatment voluntarily Watson, Bowers, Andersen, Milk consumption has decreased among children while intake of fruit juices and carbonated beverages has increased.
A higher incidence of bone fractures in teenage girls has been associated with a greater consumption of carbonated beverages Wyshak, Possibly also related is the substitution of soda for milk.
Vegetarian diets and children
Omission of entire food groups increases risk of deficiencies. If client is a vegetarian, evaluate if obtaining sufficient amounts of vitamin B12 and iron. Strict vegetarians may be at particular risk for vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies.Lineage 2 servers status
Special care should be taken when implementing vegetarian diets for pregnant women, infants, children, and the elderly. A dietitian can usually furnish a balanced vegetarian diet with adequate substitutes for omitted foods for inpatients and can provide instruction for outpatients. Assess client's ability to obtain and use essential nutrients. Cases of vitamin D deficiency rickets have been reported among dark-skinned infants and toddlers who were exclusively breast fed and were not given supplemental vitamin D.
The children resided in northern Fitzpatrick et al,mid-south Kreiter et al,and southern Shah et al, states, indicating that the presence of natural sunlight does not eliminate the risk of disease.
Observe client's ability to eat time involved, motor skills, visual acuity, ability to swallow various textures. Poor vision was associated with lower protein and energy calorie intakes in home care clients independent of other medical conditions Payette et al, If client has difficulty swallowing, refer to Nursing Interventions and Rationales for Impaired Swallowing. If client lacks endurance, schedule rest periods before meals and open packages and cut up food for client.
Nursing assistance with activities of daily living ADLs will conserve the client's energy for activities the client values. Clients who take longer than 1 hour to complete a meal may require assistance Evans, Evaluate client's laboratory studies serum albumin, serum total protein, serum ferritin, transferrin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, vitamins, and minerals.
An abnormal value in a single diagnostic study may have many possible causes, but serum albumin less than 3. Maintain a high index of suspicion of malnutrition as a contributing factor in infections. Impaired immunity is a critical adjunct factor in malnutrition-associated infections in all age groups in all populations of the world Chandra, Be alert for food-nutrient-drug interactions.
Individuals at greatest risk are those who are malnourished, consume alcohol, receiving many drugs long term for chronic diseases, or take medications with meals or through a feeding tube Lutz, Przytulski, Case reports still appear in medical journals describing scurvy in persons with alcoholism Garg, Draganescu, Albornoz, Assess for recent changes in physiological status that may interfere with nutrition.Apart from the ethical and environmental benefits of cutting meat from your diet, a well-planned vegetarian diet may also reduce your risk of chronic disease, support weight loss and improve the quality of your diet.
This article provides a beginner's guide to the vegetarian diet, including a sample meal plan for one week. People often adopt a vegetarian diet for religious or personal reasons, as well as ethical issues, such as animal rights. Others decide to become vegetarian for environmental reasons, as livestock production increases greenhouse gas emissions, contributes to climate change and requires large amounts of water, energy and natural resources 23.
In fact, studies show that vegetarians tend to have better diet quality than meat-eaters and a higher intake of important nutrients like fibervitamin C, vitamin E and magnesium 45. In fact, one review of 12 studies noted that vegetarians, on average, experienced 4. Similarly, a six-month study in 74 people with type 2 diabetes demonstrated that vegetarian diets were nearly twice as effective at reducing body weight than low-calorie diets 7.
Plus, a study in nearly 61, adults showed that vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index BMI than omnivores — BMI being a measurement of body fat based on height and weight 8.
Some research suggests that a vegetarian diet may be linked to a lower risk of cancer — including those of the breast, colon, rectum and stomach 910 However, current research is limited to observational studies, which cannot prove a cause-and-effect relationship.
Keep in mind that some studies have turned up inconsistent findings 12 For instance, one review of six studies linked vegetarianism to improved blood sugar control in people with type 2 diabetes Vegetarian diets may also prevent diabetes by stabilizing blood sugar levels in the long term.
Vegetarian diets reduce several heart disease risk factors to help keep your heart healthy and strong. Other research indicates that vegetarianism may be associated with lower blood pressure levels.
High blood pressure is another key risk factor for heart disease 18 Meat, poultry and fish supply a good amount of protein and omega-3 fatty acidsas well as micronutrients like zinc, selenium, iron and vitamin B12 Other animal products like dairy and eggs also contain plenty of calcium, vitamin D and B vitamins 21 Studies show that vegetarians are at a higher risk of protein, calcium, iron, iodine and vitamin B12 deficiencies 232425 A nutritional deficiency in these key micronutrients can lead to symptoms like fatigue, weakness, anemia, bone loss and thyroid issues 272829 Multivitamins and supplements are another option to quickly bump up your intake and compensate for potential deficiencies.
A vegetarian diet should include a diverse mix of fruits, vegetables, grains, healthy fats and proteins. To replace the protein provided by meat in your diet, include a variety of protein-rich plant foods like nuts, seeds, legumes, tempeh, tofu and seitan.
Vegetarian and vegan eating
Log in. Get started today! Nutrition: Proteins Coursepoint. Edit a Copy. Study these flashcards. Kaitlyn M. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range has established the recommended range of protein intake for adults to be:. The nurse understands the importance of assisting clients in maintaining homeostasis. A component of homeostasis is maintaining the proper ratio between protein catabolism and anabolism. Which of the following reflects protein homeostasis? The health care provider wants to ensure that a client is getting enough protein to meet her needs in recovering from major abdominal surgery.
The nurse notes that the client consumed 60 grams of protein. A hour urinary urea nitrogen collection result was 5. The nurse recognizes that this client is in which of the following states? The nurse is preparing a diet plan for a client who weighs pounds.
If the client is going to start a calorie MyPlate diet plan, approximately how many grams of protein should he eat each day? The nurse is assisting a client who has been diagnosed with hepatitis. The client is a vegan and is having difficulties eating a high-protein diet. How can the nurse respond? Most vegetarian diets meet or exceed RDA for protein despite not including meat. However, there is one necessary nutrient that does not occur naturally in plants.
What necessary nutrient may be missing from a vegetarian diet, especially a vegan diet? The nurse is aware that proteins carry out many different functions in the body. Some facilitate changes in the body without changing themselves.
What are these special proteins called? The client is a year-old male who was in a motorcycle accident, sustaining a fractured femur and closed head injury. The health care provider has requested a nitrogen balance determination.As a nurse, you will need to know how to provide care to patients based on their nutritional needs.
These questions are designed to test your knowledge on specific diets and nutritional needs. Once you are done with the quiz you will be able to see your answers with rationales.
NOTE: When you hit submit, it will refresh this same page. Scroll down to see your results. This quiz is copyright RegisteredNurseRn. As a nursing student, preparing for NCLEX, you will be tested on the ability to take care of a patient based on their nutrition needs. You are taking care of a patient with severe COPD. What type of diet would best suit this patient's needs? Potassium-modified diet Low-purine diet Renal Diet High-calcium diet.
Nuts and seeds, fruits, and soy products Legumes, organ meat, and dark green leafy vegetables Grains, berries, and organic vegetables Vegetables, fish, and pasta. Oysters, yogurt, and turkey Chicken, cheese, and grilled eggplant Boiled eggs and chocolate milk Fish, milk, and poached eggs.
Rice, watermelon, and smoked fish Carrots, fried chicken, and cereal Tacos, peanuts, and fresh broccoli Soup, pudding, and ice cream. Canned soups, cold cut sandwiches, and Chinese take-out Fresh fruits and vegetable, poultry, and beans Microwaved sweet potatoes, boiled cabbage, and artichokes Steamed broccoli, broiled mackerel, and artificial sweeteners. Glass of whole milk, broccoli, and cabbage French fries, chicken salad, and apple pie Peanut butter sandwich, glass of milk, and strawberries Piece of white bread, skinless white potatoes, and white rice.
Rhubarb Liver Mushrooms Avocado. Eggs Bananas Green leafy vegetables Hot Dogs.Eso bots everywhere
Processed meats Bananas Spinach Lettuce. Raisins 6. Dried beans, eggs, meats Peanuts, tomatoes, and cabbage Oats, fruits, and vegetables Liver, spinach, corn.Coefficient of wear
Peanuts, beans, and pork Citrus fruit and tomatoes Corn, poultry, and grains Liver, beef, and fish. Mechanically altered diet with nectar thick liquids Full liquid diet Mechanically altered diet with thin liquids Soft diet.
Vegetarian diets continue to increase in popularity. Reasons for following a vegetarian diet are varied but include health benefits, such as reducing your risk of heart disease, diabetes and some cancers. Yet some vegetarians rely too heavily on processed foods, which can be high in calories, sugar, fat and sodium. And they may not eat enough fruits, vegetables, whole grains and calcium-rich foods, thus missing out on the nutrients they provide.
However, with a little planning a vegetarian diet can meet the needs of people of all ages, including children, teenagers, and pregnant or breast-feeding women. The key is to be aware of your nutritional needs so that you plan a diet that meets them. When people think about a vegetarian diet, they typically think about a diet that doesn't include meat, poultry or fish. But vegetarian diets vary in what foods they include and exclude:. Some people follow a semivegetarian diet — also called a flexitarian diet — which is primarily a plant-based diet but includes meat, dairy, eggs, poultry and fish on occasion or in small quantities.
To get the most out of a vegetarian diet, choose a variety of healthy plant-based foods, such as whole fruits and vegetables, legumes and nuts, and whole grains. At the same time, cut back on less healthy choices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juices and refined grains.
If you need help, a registered dietitian can assist you in creating a vegetarian plan that's right for you. Keep in mind that the more restrictive your diet is, the more challenging it can be to get all the nutrients you need. A vegan diet, for example, eliminates natural food sources of vitamin B, as well as milk products, which are good sources of calcium.
To be sure that your diet includes everything your body needs, pay special attention to the following nutrients:. Calcium helps build and maintain strong teeth and bones. Milk and dairy foods are highest in calcium. However, dark green vegetables, such as turnip and collard greens, kale, and broccoli, are good plant sources when eaten in sufficient quantities.
Calcium-enriched and fortified products, including juices, cereals, soy milk, soy yogurt and tofu, are other options. Vitamin D also plays an important role in bone health.
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